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Spanish acknowledgement

After being defeated in 1824 at Ayacucho, Spain withdraws from America. Ferdinand VII insists in the reconquest of America, stopping the independence acknowledgement. The arrival of his widow, the Queen María Cristina to the Regency in 1833 will change the situation. Left behind are the intents for establishing a confederation like the British Commonwealth.

The new republics as well as Spain were interested in the acknowledgement. In first instance the acknowledgement was equal to the rectification on behalf of Spain of the lost of their sovereignty. For Spain was necessary to sign trade treaties. However, whats important about this process is that Spain lacked on a project to carry out in an organized way the different acknowledgements.

At the beginning of 1834 the Spanish Government held by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa (Granada, 1787-Madrid, 1862) along with the United Kingdom support, manifests its intention to start the negotiations. The first nation to sign up a treaty was Mexico, whose representative at London; Lorenzo Zavala (Tecoh, Mexico, 1788-San Jacinto, United States, 1836) started the negotiations with the Spanish representative, the Duke of Frías. The signing of the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Treaty with the Republic of Mexico was held on December 28, 1836 after the Courts´ authorization.

From that year on and until 1850 take place the acknowledgements of Ecuador (1840), Chile (1844), Venezuela (1845), Bolivia (1847), Costa Rica and Nicaragua both on 1850.

With the inflow of foreign capital at the Peninsula, the foreign policy would be more aggressive as it is shown at the Pacifics War participation (1863-1866), Maximilian´s Mexican Empire (1861-1862), the adding of Santo Domingo (1861-1865) and the Ten year Cuban War (1868-1878). During this period agreements with Dominican Republic will be signed (1855) as well as with Argentina and Guatemala in 1863, Peru and El Salvador (1865). Five years later it would be signed with Uruguay, in 1870.

With the withdrawal policy performed by president Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (Málaga, 1828-Arrasate/ Mondragón, Gipuzkoa, 1897) at the Restoration, the Paraguayan Treaties are signed (1880), Colombia (1881), Honduras (1894) and finally Panama (1904) that got independence from Colombia a year before.

Desde ese año y hasta 1850 se producen los reconocimientos de Ecuador (1840), Chile (1844), Venezuela (1845), Bolivia (1847), Costa Rica y Nicaragua (ambos en 1850).

Con la entrada de capital extranjero en la Península Ibérica, la política exterior será más agresiva, como demuestra la participación en la guerra del Pacífico (1863-1866), el imperio mexicano de Maximiliano (1861-1862), la anexión de Santo Domingo (1861-1865) o la guerra cubana de los Diez Años (1868-1878). Durante este período se firmarán los acuerdos con República Dominicana (1855), Argentina y Guatemala (1863), Perú y El Salvador (1865). Cinco años más tarde se firmará con Uruguay (1870).

Con la política de recogimiento llevada a cabo por el presidente Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (Málaga, 1828-Arrasate/Mondragón, Gipuzkoa, 1897) en la Restauración, se firman los tratados con Paraguay (1880), Colombia (1881), Honduras (1894), y finalmente, de Panamá (1904), que se había independizado de Colombia un año antes.