Since it became the first sugar exporter after the slavery crisis of Haiti in 1791, Cuba keeps itself under the hands of the Spaniards and holds a privileged position.
During this years, the resources that entry to the Antilles comes directly from the silver production of New Spain. The metal flow is used to keep the civil and military war of the Antilles, La Florida and La Luisiana. Spain doesnt contribute with any kind of capital for its support, but in the other hand receives great amount of tobacco. When New Spain stops sending silver, Spain turns to an increase in tax burden and the production of sugar, tobacco and coffee.
The Cuban population is divided very different ethnical and economical groups: a Spaniard descended elite that gains power and fortune; the Spaniards that held civil and economical power; and the black slaves.
Since conquest times, Cuba is a Spanish bastion in the middle of the Caribbean from where the expeditions and the rules that govern the entire continent will lead for centuries. The revolutionary processes that take place in continental America will not affect the same way to the islands. The liberal revolution victory from Lieutenant Rafael del Riego when liberal ideas start to settle in the territory.
During the Liberal Triennium, a group of creoles emerge claiming for independence but they wont be successful in their intent. However, it triggers the following liberal conspiracies in the island for 30 years. The vindications oscillate from the proposal of the complete Spanish independence to an autonomic system inside the kingdom or the annexation to the United States. They will remain until the independence in 1898.
In 1837 under a liberal government, the Spanish Courts will deny Cubas representation, creating great discontent among the people of the island.
The sought for maximum production and tax pressure will mean total control from a political and economical perspective over the island and exclude the Cubans from all decision-taking positions. This last circumstance divides the two powerful groups, creoles and Spaniards.
Meanwhile, those in favor of the independence will use the international boost of the liberalism to start up local revolutionary boards that will lead to the Cubas first independence war, best called Guerra de los 10 años (1868-1878) where the Spanish military Arsenio Martínez-Campos Antón (Segovia, 1831-Zarautz, Gipuzkoa, 1900) stand out.
The development of sugar industry at the western region encourages the islands transformation and intensifies Spains hopes to revive their bad economy through taxes. There is a kind of monopoly among the Cuban-Hispanic and North American industries. Spain has the financial control and imposes duties that obstacles the free trade of the United States.
Efforts for independence start shifting with the intervention of politician and writer José Martí (La Habana, Cuba, 1853-Dos Rios, Cuba, 1895), who during his exile to the United States creates the Partido Revolucionario Cubano in 1892. This movement ends in the eastern region uprising of the isle. However, the premature dead of José Marti, leaves the movement in the hands of Máximo Gómez Báez (Bani, Dominican Republic, 1836-La Habana, Cuba, 1905) and Antonio Maceo Grajales (Santiago, Cuba, 1845-Punta Brava, Cuba, 1896). Due to the uprisings, the Spanish government sent once again General Arsenio Martínez-Campos as Captain General of Cuba that needs to be substitute without any success. His successor, Valeriano Weyler, (Palma, Illes Balears, 1838-Madrid, 1930) is not able to cope with Maceo´s troops that were provisioned with North Americas equipment and the press support and get the approval of a resolution in favor of the independence of Cuba.
The death of the Spanish Government President Antonio Cánovas del Castillo in 1897 and the resign of Valeriano Weyler as Captain General of Cuba will make Práxedes Mateo-Sagasta´s (Torrecilla en Cameros, La Rioja, 1825-Madrid, 1903) new government to give in to the North American pressures over the island. The outbreak of the battleship Maine at La Habana port rushes an armed confrontation against the United States that will end up defeating Spain. On December 10, 1898, Spain will resign to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippines on the Treaty of Paris that from now on will be part of the North American military administration.