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  5. The Absolutism Restoration Process of Ferdinand VII


The Absolutism Restoration Process of Ferdinand VII

Liberals mainly wrote the Constitution of 1812, but some parliament members of the absolutism already showed their disagreement. All of the former institutions of the old regime and the Church, that couldnt accept the abolition of the Inquisition, mind freedom and the attack to their properties drag the people to support the return of the absolutism.

The Regency stands up for Oat of the Constitution before the Duke of San Carlos representing Ferdinand VII. San Carlos had as duty to investigate what kind of environment there was at the Regency and the Courts. The investigations revealed that everyone whished for the return of Ferdinand VII, the realist wanted the constitutional regime to end, the liberals wanted the acknowledgement of the Constitution of 1812 as well as the changes made in the Courts.

On April 16, Ferdinand VII arrives to Valencia and the absolutists present the Manifiesto de los Persas, demanding to end with the liberal reform process and bring back the Inquisition. Meanwhile, General Francisco Javier Elio, now at the Peninsula as General in Chief of the II Army, swears to keep the throne with all of its rights. In addition, there Napoleons abdication and a possible French invasion threat, disappears. All of this make possible for Ferdinand VII to sign the Decreto de Valencia (Valencias Decree) on May 4, 1814 where he revokes the constitutional regime. The decree shows a negative relationship from the activities of the Courts, a reform plan based on the summoned to Courts with solicitors from Spain and The Indies. Delivers a Monarch statement against the Oath of the Constitution of 1812 and annuls the whole Courts work.

On May 5, Ferdinand VII leaves Valencia and sets forth Madrid in a triumphant march. The peoples excitement on the return of El Deseado (The Wanted one) is huge. The constitutional regime is not able to deliver resistance and the Courts get dissolve on May 10, 1814.

Ferdinand VII will start a strong repression by setting the Comisión de Causas de Estado (Commission for the States causes) in order to go after the liberal politics. Some of them, exile. The return of Ferdinand VII means the return to the old system from 1808, setting back some of the measures taken by the reformismo ilustrado. The discontent of the liberals and of the army will feed unproductive military uprisings in the Peninsula with José María Torrijos (Madrid, 1791-Malaga, 1831) as well as in America with Francisco Javier Mina (Otano, Navarra, 1789-Mexico, D.F, 1817 at Soto la Marina.

The new ministers are unable to develop good politics. Measures taken like the restoration of la Mesta the union trades, the tax stratum privileges, the reimbursement of disentail properties, etc., take the country to bankruptcy. Also there is a reduction on American remittances.