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Independence Processes in the International Arena

After Napoleon was defeated, a new international system establishes where conflicts and decisions will be discussed and approved at Congress.

Ideas and revolutionary movements will find the opposition of the powers defending the Old Regime who once Napoleon was defeated, held a meeting in Vienna between 1814 and 1815 to reinstall the old power structures. The political system coming from Vienna need it theoretical and pragmatic supports. A group of thinkers contrary to the liberal revolution contributed with the doctrine, but there was still the need for military support. With this aim, the Holy Alliance was created, proposed by the tsar Alexander I (Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1777-Taganrog, Russia, 1825) integrated by Russia, Prussia and Austria to fight as brotherhood against liberalism. But was France joining in 1818 the real armed guarantee of the system. The actions taken are first taken at congress to maintain the political situation. The Verona congress, celebrated in 1822, for example, decided the intervention in Spain to reestablish Ferdinand VII as absolute monarch.

On the other hand, Great Britain, The United States sought for economical and political control in America, being trade in America the main interest for Great Britain. It started taking possession of enough strategic enclaves in order to control and domain the worlds sea routes.

Regarding The United States, at the Congress of Philadelphia (1776) the representatives for the British Colonies proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen American Colonies. The fight between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies in North America ended in 1783 with the signature of Treaty of Versailles. The Franco-British agreement set on September 3 of the same year, acknowledge the independence of the Thirteen Colonies and the French possession of the western Louisiana, Santa Lucia, Tobago and the right to fish at Terranova. At the same time, the British representation and the independent North American colonies signed a pact that acknowledged the complete sovereignty of those territories.

On February 22, 1822 a treaty for friendship, limits and differences solving known as Treaty of Adams-Onis was signed between Spain and The United States of America. In the Treaty the limits between the North American nation and the New Spain territory was established. The United States would get Eastern Florida for 5 million dollars. Western Florida adding was acknowledged; the Western border of Louisiana was defended and Spain abandons its granting over Oregon.

The foreign policy of the United States was established since 1823 by the Monroe Doctrine, summarized in the phrase America for the Americans issued by John Quincy Adams but attributed to President James Monroe (Monroe Hall, United States, 1758-New York, United States, 1835). It was addressed to the European powers and announced that the United States will not tolerate any European intromission in America. In this doctrine there are two different guidelines: in one side, the declaration in which the overall American continent will be left out of new European colonization to guarantee the security of the United States; and on the other hand, the country will not interfere in European affairs.