Fourth Stage (1820-1830)

The year 1820 I the starting point of the last stage of the independence processes in Latin America. In the following years, the independence of New Spain takes place and new Latin American republics are created. The former map is very similar to the current one. In 1824 the Batalla de Ayacucho takes place, ending with the Latin American independence warfare.

At the Peninsula this decade continuous to be tumultuous and three years of unstable liberal governments after the uprising of Lieutenant Colonel Rafael del Riego, followed other ten of absolute power from Ferdinand VII, outlining the Carlists Wars.

Ferdinand VII will not resign to the American Continent and for that reason, several expeditions are held in order to recover the lost territory. They will fail one after the other and it´s during the regent council of the widow María Cristina de Borbón when Spain starts to consider in the acknowledgement of the new Latin American republics.