Social Conflicts

Since the beginning of conquest times, societys division lays upon the origin of the people. The Spaniards held the main working positions on the political, economical, military and religious arena. Within time, some of these will be held directly by their descendents, the creoles, or indirectly through gifting or corruption that the Hispanic administrators concede and encourage. The rest of the social groups such as mestizos, pardos, blacks, indians and zambos, will end up as work force and subject to pay fees, to the mit´a or a levy.

The Age of Reason will lead America to change to a more rational government in the metropolis. Regarding taxation, a direct and severe tax regimen is imposed and re-establishes the figure of the inspector (Visitador), a governments employee sent to the Indies to look over the conduct of the indians authorities. The most important ones, holding a lot of powers were: José de Gálvez (Macharaviaya, Malaga, 1720-Aranjuez, Madrid, 1786) and José Antonio de Areche (Balmaseda, Bizkaia, 1728-Bilbao, Bizkaia, 1798).

The reforms that the metropolis creates, results in a general discomfort that leads to greater and minor riots leaded by creoles as well as by indigenous along the 18th Century. The rebellion of Yucatan in 1761 had as main leader the Mayan Jacinto Uc de los Santos, best known as Jacinto Canek (San Francisco de Campeche, Mexico, 1730-Merida, Mexico, 1761). This was the precedent of the rebellions that the economical reform brought within. The first tax reform in 1763 ends up in riots along Quito, Puno, Puebla, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi and Patzcuaro. Also, the rebellions originated by the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767 take place.

The second and principal reform in 1776 will provoke a series of uprising movements leaded by creoles, indigenous, mestizos with uneven recognition, but with the will to improve their quality of life.

At New Granada, the revolts of the comuneros del Socorro in 1781 against the tax-raise will result in an annulment once they head to the Cabildo. During this occasion, the black and the indigenous move towards the revolt, but the creoles that had encouraged it, will end up adding themselves to the authorities to avoid a social conflict.

During this same period of time, at the Viceroy of Rio de la Plata, José Gabriel Túpac Amaru (Surimana, Peru, 1738-Cuzco, Peru, 1781) will lead the biggest indigenous revolt since conquest times. The goal was to modify the labour system of the indigenous people, but these were not of creoles interests, who where the landlords of the production goods. The radicalism and aggressiveness of the protests will set a condition upon the relations between creoles and indigenous in the later independence process of Peru. During this time, Creole revolts occur, as it is the revolt of Villa de Oruno in 1781 or the Indian rebellion of the Catari brothers also at Upper Peru in 1780