The Treaty of Anagni was a peace agreement signed in the Italian town of the same name by Pope Boniface VIII, James II of Aragon, Philip IV of France and Charles II of Naples, to put an end to the international conflict caused by the Aragonese conquest of the kingdom of Sicily in 1282 by James II’s father, Peter “The Great” of Aragon.
According to historians, the treaty marked a change in the Crown of Aragon’s alliance policy which, although it wasn’t the last, was a milestone in the medieval development of Aragon: its geographical and economic expansion across the Mediterranean.
Aragonese foreign policy had meant direct conflict with the papacy and the Kingdom of France, resulting in the excommunication of the Aragonese King, an embargo on his kingdoms, the outbreak of the Aragonese Crusade decreed by Pope Martin V and, consequently, a great threat for the monarchy itself and economic and human losses. This is, until James II’s change of direction.
Anagni marked several political milestones. Reconciliation between the Aragonese and Angevin families; the latter ruled the Kingdom of Naples at the time. Reconciliation with the papacy as James II abandoned the anti-papal faction embraced by his father, and the excommunication and embargo on him were lifted. Reconciliation with his uncle, James II of Mallorca, although that kingdom remained annexed to the Crown of Aragon. The transfer of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia to James of Aragon, the springboard he needed for maritime expansion.
Preparatory documents, such as the King’s instructions to his ambassadors for the treaty and the papal documents received in Aragon, are kept in the Archive. There is also the administrative accounts, an exceptional archival document for learning more about daily life at the embassy.
The Sigili Secreti et Secretorum and Legationum series contain documents on international legates among the registers of the Chancery of James II. It is also advisable to consult the register for the Varia series entitled Revocationum Siciliae, on the orders immediately derived from the withdrawal from Sicily. There are also mentions of the treaty in parchments from the time of James II, such as the two shown here: the notary records of the engagement between James II and Blanche of Anjou (ACA,CANCILLERÍA,Pergaminos,Jaime II,Serie general,512), and the records of the meeting between James of Aragon and Charles of Naples near La Jonquera to ratify the treaty in person (ACA,CANCILLERÍA,Pergaminos,Jaime II,Serie general,569). The account of the legate’s trip to Italy by Jaume Bos is kept in the Royal Heritage collection.
Both the records and accounts of the trip are available in digital format on the PARES portal.